After World War I and due to the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, along with the intervention of Western powers in dividing its remnants among themselves, the Sykes-Picot Agreement was concluded. This agreement drew new artificial borders, with Syria becoming one of these newly defined entities. It remained under French mandate until the French eventually withdrew due to both World War II and popular uprisings. Since then, Syria has witnessed numerous governments and frequent coups, until the Ba’ath Party came to power.
For over a decade now, Syria has held a significant place on the international and regional discussion table. The year 2011 marked a turning point in its trajectory. Syria was already grappling with internal crises, external pressures, and international isolation, which culminated in an explosion coinciding with the “Arab Spring.”
However, what is noteworthy is that Syria’s version of the “Arab Spring” differed from what occurred in Egypt and Tunisia. This explosion in Syria led to a civil war, regional and international interventions, which in turn have kept the conflict ongoing to this day.
This research includes information about the historical evolution of Syria, from its birth to the French mandate, to the change in the current system, the Ba’ath Party’s authority, and the subsequent changes that have taken place in it.
The significance of this research lies in the fact that the Syrian issue has occupied many researchers, study centers, and numerous books have been written about it. It has become a complex problem resistant to resolution and a field for settling local, regional, and international scores. What motivated us to undertake this research is the desire to delve into the reasons why this regime did not fall, despite its international isolation, numerous sanctions, deteriorating economic conditions, and external interventions. This drove us to delve into the history, nature, and strategy of this state in order to uncover the reasons for it not falling.